An end ileostomy involves removing the whole of the colon. The ileum (the end of the small intestine) is brought out of the abdomen to create a permanent stoma (opening). The end is then stitched into place.
The waste material comes out into a pouch, called a stoma pouch that is worn under your clothes and is made of an adhesive material that sticks to your skin. The pouch needs to be emptied regularly. It is recommended that it is emptied when it is one-third full because to prevent it from bulging and possibly leaking.
A loop ileostomy is a procedure that involves creating a stoma at the loop of the ileum, usually on the right-hand side of the abdomen.
The loop is created to direct the waste material from your colon. This may be necessary to assist with the healing of an injury to your colon, or following the removal of a diseased section (or the entire colon) or to relieve a blockage.
The loop ileostomy usually temporary and the stoma may be closed during a second operation.
Creating an ileo-anal pouch involves removing the colon and the rectum, but not the anus. An ileo-anal pouch is created from the ileum (the end of the small intestine).
The pouch is joined to the anus so that your bowel actions can be controlled in the normal way. The pouch stores the waste material until it is excreted (expelled) when you go the toilet.
The operation is usually carried out in two stages. First, your colon and rectum are removed, and then the pouch is created and joined to your anus. It is usually necessary to let the area around the pouch heal before it is used, so a temporary loop ileostomy above the pouch will be created.
After a couple of months, a second, smaller operation is carried out to close the ileostomy. Sometimes, it is possible for the operation to be performed without creating a temporary ileostomy.
A continent ileostomy involves removing the colon (large intestine). The end of the ileum is bent back inwards, to create a pouch that is stapled into place against the side of the abdomen.
A smaller section of the ileum is used to create a valve, which is pulled through a stoma in the abdomen and then stitched into placed. The internal pouch can then be emptied by draining it with a catheter (thin tube).